You can get married immediately, you just need to apply for marriage license.
The official processing time is 12 months, regardless of whether its outland or inland.
If Indonesia allows you to renew your passport in Canada, then you can do it in Vancouver or anywhere else.
You can apply for a work permit as part of your inland sponsorship application.
If you are doing outland sponsorship, you need a valid visitor visa to visit your husband in Canada.